How to make a surface planer for the home workshop
Sometimes in your home workshop you may need a thicknessing machine, which is used to make the exact size of boards with a given cross section. The thicknessing machine has a clamping and feeding device, several parts can be processed on it at once. Thicknesser with flat and figured knives is a good universal equipment, which is quite expensive. To save money, you can collect it yourself, provided that there is enough technical knowledge on this topic.
The machine operates on the principle of supplying torque from the engine to the shaft with knives. The board enters the gap and is pressed against the lower and upper rolls. A corrugated roll captures the workpiece and feeds it to the tool. Next, the part is fixed between the guiding devices. The finished workpiece comes off the machine at the back, and the next part for processing is fed forward.
If for some reason there is no desire to buy a finished machine, you can make your own version. But at the same time, it is better to buy certain components and spare parts ready-made, since they are too complicated for independent manufacture. For example, the working knife shaft and mounting bearings cannot be reproduced exactly, which will cause the workpiece to become very hot.
Schemes and drawings of the thicknessing machine are available on the Internet, but first you need to clarify how exactly the individual elements will be made. One mechanism can perform the functions of a jointer and a thicknesser, for which a two-way drive is made. This will immediately plan and accurately process the workpiece.
Assemble a homemade machine like this:
- First, a bed is made. Under it, you can take metal pipes with a minimum cross section of 40x60 mm and increased rigidity and strength. It is better not to twist the pipes with bolts, but to weld them with electric welding.
- As feed rollers, rolls from an old washing machine that have rubber on top are suitable. The rolls available on the farm should be bored to the diameter of the bearings in accordance with the adjustment range. On a home-made machine, this can be done manually by turning the handle.
- A table for the machine can be a wide board made of strong wood. Vibration absorbs wood very well. To increase resistance to corrosion and fire, the material is impregnated with creosote or a fire-fighting composition. The table can be bolted to the bed.
- When choosing an engine, you should not take too powerful a motor. The main thing is that it is enough to perform the required tasks. Usually enough power of 5-6 kW with speeds of up to 4000 per minute.
- For the safety of the machine, it is important to shield it with a removable casing of thin steel sheet.
- Parts such as knives, pulleys, bearings and fasteners are selected individually for each machine.
Getting started, you should consider a number of recommendations:
- The surface of the table should be as even as possible;
- All rotating parts must be balanced in statics and dynamics;
- The position of the table should be conveniently adjustable;
- Be sure to check the protection of the movable elements.
When the machine is mounted, it must be checked at idle. Just making sure that all the parts and mechanisms are working properly, you can check it already with the boards. Then you should paint all the stationary elements of the machine with protective paint.